We tend to think that plugin-based architectures are hard to develop. And that is certainly true for many advanced plugin-based architectures such as those for browsers. But sometimes we may be looking for a simple yet powerful plugin-based architecture. If that's your case, then read on. I'll show you how to design and implement one in Python.
I'll explain how I designed utt's plugin system and how you can apply the same pattern to your application.
There are two key questions to address in a plugin architecture:
In our simple plugin system, these two problems are solved by putting packages
into specific namespaces. Plugins go into the
app.plugins namespace and the
app is the name of the application.
At startup, the application discovers and loads plugins by asking Python all
packages registered under the
app.plugins namespace. So all packages whose
app.plugins.*. And when plugins are loaded by the application,
they import the application API at
For example, if there were two plugins for the application installed on the
system, foo and bar, they would be located in the
This package naming convention allows the application and the plugins to know about each other, even though they are not necessary maintained and distributed by the same person. For example, the application could be maintained in its own git repo and distributed under its own package on PyPI, while each plugin can be maintained in their own git repo and distributed in their own package on PyPI.
We can say that the application and the plugins form together a virtual package
app), composed of many physical packages (e.g.
Here is an example of a namespace hierarchy that follows the package naming convention we've just described and who is responsible for providing each package:
Let's now see how utt implements such plugin system.
The main package in utt is
utt. So as expected, utt's plugins are located
utt.plugins namespace and utt's API under
Here is how utt discovers and loads plugins at startup:
import importlib import pkgutil import sys import utt.plugins def iter_namespace(ns_pkg): return pkgutil.iter_modules(ns_pkg.__path__, ns_pkg.__name__ + ".") def load_plugins(): for _, name, _ in iter_namespace(utt.plugins): importlib.import_module(name) def main(): load_plugins() ...
iter_namespace function finds all packages under the
utt.plugins) and the
load_plugins function imports them.
utt exposes its API (currently at v1) under the
# This file contains the classes, functions and constants # that can be used by plugins. from ...command import Command from ._private import register_command, register_component ...
The symbols exported in the file above are the ones that can be used by plugins.
For example, the following plugin registers a new utt command (foo) through the
register_command function exported in utt's API:
from utt.api import v1 class FooHandler: ... foo_command = v1.Command(name="foo", handler_class=FooHandler, ...) v1.register_command(foo_command)
That's basically all you need to know to develop your own plugin architecture in Python.
Note that plugins can also be maintained and distributed within the same git repo and PyPI package of the application. This is what utt does for its built-in commands: they are just plugins.
Finally, a technique very useful when developing a plugin architecture is dependency injection. Dependency injection allows to easily override certain behaviors at runtime, depending on the configuration loaded (think plugins). utt heavily uses this pattern with the help of cargo, a dependency injection library in Python.